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Functional Imaging Journal

Author Guidelines


Article types 

Editorials. Commissioned by the Editor in Chief or the Managing Editor, editorials deal with a subject of topical interest about which the author expresses his/her personal opinion. No more than 1000 words (3 typed, double-spaced pages) and up to 15 references will be accepted.

Original articles. These should be original contributions to the subject. The text should be 3000-5500 words (8 to 16 typed, double-spaced pages) not including references, tables, figures. No more than 50 references will be accepted. The article must be subdivided into the following sections: introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusions. In the introduction the aim of the study should be clearly summed up. The materials and methods section should describe in a logical sequence how the study was designed and carried out, how the data were analyzed (what hypothesis was tested, what type of study was carried out, how randomization was done, how the subjects were recruited and chosen, provide accurate details of the main features of treatment, of the materials used, of drug dosages, of unusual equipment, of the statistical method ...). In the results section the answers to the questions posed in the introduction should be given. The results should be reported fully, clearly and concisely supported, if necessary, by figures, graphs and tables. The discussion section should sum up the main results, critically analyze the methods used, compare the results obtained with other published data and discuss the implications of the results. The conclusions should briefly sum up the significance of the study and its future implications.

Review articles. These should discuss a topic of current interest, outline current knowledge of the subject, analyze different opinions regarding the problem discussed, and be up-to-date on the latest data in the literature. The authors should avoid presenting material that has already been published in a previous review. The text should be 6000-12000 words (17 to 34 typed, double-spaced pages) not including references, tables, figures. No more than 100 references will be accepted.

Therapeutical notes. These are intended for the presentation and assessment of new medical and surgical treatments. The text should be 3000-5500 words (8 to 16 typed, double-spaced pages) not including references, tables, figures. No more than 30 references will be accepted. Articles must be subdivided into the following sections: introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusions.

Commentary. This is a short article that describes an author’s personal experience of a specific topic. The subject may be controversial and the author’s perspective is provided. This type of paper does not introduce new information and should outline the present viewpoints. It may be based on a current hot topic or may be commissioned to accompany an original paper on the same topic. Title : “Commentary on article “ADD NAME” by “ADD NAME AUTHOR”. The commentary should be structured in three parts: Introduction - a short description of what the argument is about of approximately 150 words, Elaboration of the critique (between 400-1000 words) and Short concluding statement of approximately 70 words. The number of references (cite up to 5 references) and illustrations (up to 2) should be limited to support the author’s opinion. 

Special articles. These are articles on the history of medicine, health care delivery, ethics, economic policy and law concerning medical imaging. The text should be 3000-7000 words (8 to 20 typed, double-spaced pages) not including references, tables, figures. No more than 50 references will be accepted.

Short communications. These are articles on laboratory investigations, pilot or preliminary studies relating to the practical resolution of clinical cases. The text must not exceed 700 words, 4 illustrations with concise legends, and 5 references.

Letters to the Editor. These may refer to articles already published in the journal or to a subject of topical interest that the authors wish to present to readers in a concise form. The text should be 500-1000 words (1 to 3 typed, double-spaced pages) not including references, tables, figures. No more than 5 references will be accepted.


Papers, which must be original, unpublished work.
Papers should be double-spaced with a margin of at least 3 cm all round.
Papers should be set out as follows, with each section beginning on a separate page:
• title page
• abstract
• text
• acknowledgements
• references
• tables
• figures and legends

Title page
The title page should give the following information:
• title of the article
• full name, degrees (i.e. MD, DMD, DDS, PHD), title and affiliations (department and institution) of all authors
• name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the author responsible for correspondence and to whom requests for off prints should be sent
• sources of support in the form of grants
• If the title is longer than 40 characters (including spaces), a short title should be supplied for use in the running heads.

Abstract and key words
The summary must not exceed 200-250 words. It should be typewritten on a separate page and structured as follows:1) aims; 2) methods; 3) results; 4) conclusions. No abbreviations, apart from standard units of measurement, may be used in the summary. The summary must be followed by a list of 2 to 6 key words – these must be terms from the Index Medicus Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list – to be used for indexing purposes.
The Editors reserve the right to make language corrections. Do not use subheadings or abbreviations; write as a continuous paragraph. Must contain all relevant information, including results and conclusion.

Please ensure that the text of your paper conforms to the following structure: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion. There is no separate Conclusion section. There should be no mention of the institution where the work was carried out, especially in the Materials and Methods section.

• Present first the nature and scope of the problem investigated
• Review briefly the pertinent literature
• State the rationale for the study
• Explain the purpose in writing the paper
• State the method of investigation and the reasons for the choice of a particular method
•Should be written in the present tense

Materials and Methods 
•Give the full details, limit references
• Should be written in the past tense
• Include exact technical specifications, quantities and generic names
• Limit the number of subheadings, and use the same in the results section
• Mention statistical method
• Do not include results in this section

• Do not describe methods
• Present results in the past tense
• Present representations rather than endlessly repetitive data
• Use tables where appropriate, and do not repeat information in the text

• Discuss - do not recapitulate results
• Point out exceptions and lack of correlations. Do not try to cover up or 'fudge' data
• Show how results agree/contrast with previous work
• Discuss the implications of your findings
• State your conclusions very clearly with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data.

Headings enhance readability but should be appropriate to the nature of the paper. They should be kept to a minimum and may be removed by the Editors. Normally only two categories of headings should be used: major ones should be typed in capital letters; minor ones should be typed in lower case (with an initial capital letter) at the left hand margin.

Quantitative analysis
If any statistical methods are used, the text should state the test or other analytical method applied, basic descriptive statistics, critical value obtained, degrees of freedom, and significance level, e.g. (ANOVA, F=2.34; df=3,46; P<0.001). If a computer data analysis was involved, the software package should be mentioned. Descriptive statistics may be presented in the form of a table, or included in the text.

Abbreviations, symbols, and nomenclature. 
Only standardized terms, which have been generally accepted, should be used. Unfamiliar abbreviations must be defined when first used. For further details concerning abbreviations, see Baron DN, ed. Units, symbols, and abbreviations. A guide for biological and medical editors and authors, London, Royal Society of Medicine, 1988 (available from The Royal Society of Medicine Services, 1 Wimpole Street, London W1M 8AE, UK). 
The minus sign should be -. 
If a special designation for teeth is used, a note should explain the symbols. Scientific names of organisms should be binomials, the generic name only with a capital, and should be italicised in the typescript. Microorganisms should be named according to the latest edition of the Manual of Clinical Microbiology, American Society of Microbiology.

Trade names
Generic terms are to be used whenever possible, but trade names and manufacturer name, city, state, and country should be included parenthetically at first mention.

The accuracy of references is the responsibility of the author; please refer to a recent issue of the journal to familiarise yourself with the reference style. All authors or groups of authors cited in the article must appear in the list of references and vice versa, be numbered in Arabic numerals and consecutively as they are cited. All references cited in the text must be included in the list of references. It is expected that the authors would have read all cited references. Bibliographical entries in the text should be quoted using superscripted Arabic numerals. References must be set out in the standard format approved by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (www.icmje.org).

Each entry must specify the author’s surname and initials (list all authors when there are six or fewer; when there are seven or more, list only the first six and then ''et al.''), the article’s original title, the name of the Journal (according to the abbreviations used by MEDLINE/PubMed), the year of publication, the volume number and the number of the first and last pages. When citing references, please follow the rules for international standard punctuation carefully.

Standard article. Sutherland DE, Simmons RL, Howard RJ. Intracapsular technique of transplant nephrectomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1978;146:951-2.
Organization as author International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Ann Int Med 1988;108:258-65.- Issue with supplement Payne DK, Sullivan MD, Massie MJ. Women’s psychological reactions to breast cancer. Semin Oncol 1996;23(1 Suppl 2):89-97.
-Books and monographs. For occasional publications, the names of authors, title, edition, place, publisher and year of publication must be given.
Examples:-Books by one or more authors: Rossi G. Manual of Otorhinolaryngology. Turin: Edizioni Minerva Medica; 1987.-Chapter from book: De Meester TR. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. In: Moody FG, Carey LC, Scott Jones R, Ketly KA, Nahrwold DL, Skinner DB, editors. Surgical treatment of digestive diseases. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers; 1986. p. 132-58.
-Congress proceedings. Kimura J, Shibasaki H, editors. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology; 1995 Oct 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.

Electronic material
-Standard journal article on the Internet: Kaul S, Diamond GA. Good enough: a primer on the analysis and interpretation of noninferiority trials. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2006 Jul 4 [cited 2007 Jan 4]; 145(1):62-9. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine
-Standard citation to a book on CD-ROM or DVD: Kacmarek RM. Advanced respiratory care [CD-ROM]. Version 3.0. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; ©2000. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.-Standard citation to a homepage: AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; ©1995-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/.
Footnotes and endnotes of Word must not be used in the preparation of references.
References first cited in a table or figure legend should be numbered so that they will be in sequence with references cited in the text taking into consideration the point where the table or figure is first mentioned. Therefore, those references should not be listed at the end of the reference section but consecutively as they are cited.

Tables should be used only to clarify important points. Formats accepted are Word.doc, Word.docx. Double documentation in the form of tables and figures is not acceptable. Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. They should be double spaced on separate pages and contain only horizontal rules. Do not submit tables as photographs. A short descriptive title should appear above each table, with any footnotes suitably identified below. Care must be taken to ensure that all units are included. Ensure that each table is cited in the text.

Figures and legends
All illustrations (e.g. graphs, drawings or photographs) are considered figures, and should be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals. Each figure should have a caption, typed double-spaced on a separate page and numbered correspondingly. The minimum resolution for electronically generated figures is 300 dpi. Formats accepted are JPEG, EPS, TIFF and Power Point. Histological photographs should always be accompanied by the magnification ratio and the staining method. If figures are in color, it should always be specified whether color or black and white reproduction is required. Figures should be referenced in the text sequentially. Each figure should have a legend.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication. 
Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (lineart) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible). For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: lineart: >600 dpi; half-tones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi

Line illustrations
All line illustrations should present a crisp black image on an even white background. The size of the lettering should be appropriate, taking into account the necessary size reduction.

Photographs and radiographs
Photomicrographs should show magnification and details of any staining techniques used. The area(s) of interest must be clearly indicated with arrows or other symbols. Colour images are encouraged, but the decision whether an illustration is accepted for reproduction in colour in the printed journal lies with the editor-in-chief.

Patient confidentiality
Where illustrations must include recognizable individuals, living or dead, great care must be taken to ensure that consent for publication has been obtained. If identifiable features are not essential to the illustration, please indicate where the illustration can be cropped. In cases where consent has not been obtained and recognizable features may appear, it will be necessary to touch up the illustration to mask the eyes or otherwise render the individual unrecognizable.

Instructions for Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor should be in reference to a specific article or editorial that has been published by the Functional Image Journal  on which you would like to comment; letters must be under 500 words (body of the letter, not including the references). One figure may accompany the letter if it is essential to understanding the subject. Please limit the number of references to fewer than 5.


Functional Image Journal  adheres to the ethical guidelines below for publication and research. 

Authorship. Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors and that all authors agree to the submission of the manuscript to the Journal. ALL named authors must have made an active contribution to the conception and design and/or analysis and interpretation of the data and/or the drafting of the paper and ALL must have critically reviewed its content and have approved the final version submitted for publication. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. Functional Image Journal  adheres to the definition of authorship set up by The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). According to the ICMJE authorship criteria should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design of, or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data, 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2 and 3. Up to 6 authors are accepted without need for justification. In the case of a specific and detailed justification of the role of every author, up to 8 authors may be mentioned. It is a requirement that all authors have been accredited as appropriate upon submission of the manuscript. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under Acknowledgements. 

Under acknowledgements, please specify contributors to the article other than the authors accredited. Acknowledge only persons who have made substantive contributions to the study. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from everyone acknowledged by name as readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions.

Ethical Approvals 
Experimentation involving human subjects will only be published if such research has been conducted in full accordance with ethical principles, including the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki (version, 2002 www.wma.net/e/policy/b3.htm ) and the additional requirements, if any, of the country where the research has been carried out. Manuscripts must be accompanied by a statement that the experiments were undertaken with the understanding and written consent of each subject and according to the above mentioned principles. A statement regarding the fact that the study has been independently reviewed and approved by an ethical board should also be included. Editor reserve the right to reject papers if there are doubts as to whether appropriate procedures have been used. When experimental animals are used the methods section must clearly indicate that adequate measures were taken to minimize pain or discomfort. Experiments should be carried out in accordance with the Guidelines laid down by the National Institute of Health (NIH) in the USA regarding the care and use of animals for experimental procedures or with the European Communities Council Directive of 24 November 1986 (86/609/EEC) and in accordance with local laws and regulations. 

Clinical Trials
Clinical trials should be reported using the CONSORT guidelines available at http://www.consort-statement.org/

Conflict of Interest and Source of Funding
Functional Image Journal  requires that sources of institutional, private and corporate financial support for the work within the manuscript be fully acknowledged, and any potential conflicts of interest noted. Suppliers of materials should be named and their location (town, state/county, country) included. Information concerning conflict of interest and sources of funding should be included under the section: Conflict of interest. Declare any matter that constitutes, may constitute or be perceived to constitute a conflict of interest or write “nothing to declare”.

If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publishers. 
Copyright Assignment
Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the work and its essential substance have not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. Correspondence to the journal is accepted on the understanding that the contributing author licences the publisher to publish the letter as part of the journal or separately from it, in the exercise of any subsidiary rights relating to the journal and its contents.